Isbeddelka ku yimaadda kaabayaasha yar yar iyo astaamaha forgyada inta lagu jiro duufaanta

Eedeymoka dib markay qufacaan, martensite iyo celceliska austenite waa xasillooni la'aan, waxay leeyihiin isbadal hay'ad iskiis u beddel ah xasillooni ahaan, sida kaarboor ku sareeya martensite si ay u kiciyaan haraaga kaydinta haraaga si loo dardar galiyo isbedelka, sida kuleylka duulaya waa urur aan sinnayn si loo miisaamo geedi socodka ururka, howshani waxay kuxirantahay guuritaanka atomikada iyo baahinta ogolaanshahan oo ay weheliso heerkulka dabka ee aad buuxisay, xawaaraha kala-baxa dhaqsaha badan; taa badalkeeda, iyadoo ay kordhayaan heerkulka kuleylka, qaab dhismeedka qulqulatooyinka mari isbeddelo isdaba joog ah. Marka loo eego xaaladda isbadal ku yimaadda kaabiyaashu, kulaylku guud ahaan wuxuu u qaybsan yahay afar marxaladood: uurku-dilitaan 'Martensite', kala-go 'austenite haraaga, kororka isu-ururinta carbide iyo dib-u-soo-kabashada.
Wejiga kowaad (200)
(1) ildheer oo tempering martensite cawisa 80 tempering heerkulka, demin bir aan Ming S Isbadal urur, dhacdo ee carbon in martensite qayb oo kaliya, oo bilaaban lahayn in ay dumin in 80-200 tempering ah, martensite bilaabmaa in la burburiyo, la abuuro carbides aad u khiyaano badan, loo yareeyo jajabka cufnaanta ee martensite ee forgings kaarboonka marxaladdaan, ay ugu wacan tahay heerkulka kuleylka hooseeya, roobka martensitic oo kaliya qayb ka mid ah atomyada kaarboonku ku jiro, sidaa darteed wali waa kaarboonka ku jira - Xalka sare ee loo xoojiyay. roobab carbide aad u fiican oo si isku mid ah ugu qaybiya maaddada martensite. Qaab dhismeedka isku-dhafan ee Martensite-ka fadhiisinta hoose iyo carbide aad u wanaagsan ayaa loo yaqaannaa Martensite-ka dabacsan.

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(2) oo ildheer tempering in marxaladda labaad (200-300), kala daatay ee haraaga ah austenite marka heerkulka u kacay inuu 200-300, kala daatay ee martensite sii, laakiin isbedelka xukuma waa kala daatay haraaga austenite ee kala daatay ee haraaga ah austenite ahaa iyada oo loo marayo ballaarinta of atambo kaarboon si ay u samayso qayb aag ah, ka dibna waxay u baaba'day wejiga alfa iyo isku-darka urur carbide, oo ah samaynta adkaanta biinite birta ma aha mid hoos u dhac ku ah marxaladan
(3) Marxaladda saddexaad (250-400) bedelka carbide of duufsanaanta kulaylka ayaa ku jira heerkan heerkulka. Heerkulka aadka u sarreeya awgood, awoodda baahinta atuminta kaarboonku way xoog badan tahay, awoodda baahinta ee soo kabashada atomyada birta sidoo kale, martensite waxay baabi'isaa kala-guurka harooyinka kaadida iyo haraaga austenite wasakhda loo rogi doonaa sibidh xasilan oo deggan oo leh kala-goynta iyo beddelka carbides, hoos u dhaca of martensite in carbon massage, martensite lattice dhalanrog, wajiga martensitic for ferrite, heli ferritic matrix qaybinta yar yar ama lamellar sibite of abaabul, ururka loo yaqaan tempering aasaasiga ah ciribtirka wejigan austenite xasuuq walbahaarka, adkaanta, adkaanta caagnimada ayaa la hagaajiyay

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(4) Marxaladda afaraad ee xannibaadda kuleylka (& GT; 400) oo ku koray carbide la ururiyey iyo dib-u-kicinta ferriter-ka heerkulka kuleylka aad u sarreeya, atambo kaarboon iyo birta ayaa leh awood xoog badan oo fidin, wajiga saddexaad ee samaynta guluubka sibidhka ayaa si isdaba joog ah u sii socon doona spheroidizing iyo koray in ka badan 500-600, alpha recrystallization dhacdaa si tartiib tartiib ah, lumiso ferrit morphology of xariiqda taarikada asalka ah ama xaashi, iyo foomka qaybinta polygon on urur sida ferritic matrix granular carbides, kooxda loo yaqaan tempering sorbite tembite tembite sorbite leh sifooyin farsamo oo dhameystiran oo wanaagsan oo wajiga iyo dhagar la'aantu waxay baabi'isaa walaaca gudaha.

(Laga bilaabo 168 shabag been abuur ah


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